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Chapter1 (Psychology and Life) Part 3
点击: ,时间:2017-05-23 18:27

Chapter1 (Psychology and Life) Part 3,Bet9.com


PredictingWhat Will Happen

Predictionsin psychology are statementsabout the likelihoodthat acertain behavior willoccur or that a given relationship will be found. Often anaccurate explanation of causes underlying some form of behavior willallow a researcher to make accurate predictions about futurebehavior. Thus, if we believe your roommate to be shy, wecould confidently predictthat he would be unconformable when asked to have a conversation witha stranger. When differentexplanations are putforward toaccountfor some behavior orrelationship, they are usually judged byhow well they can make accurate and comprehensive predictions.If your roommate was to blossom in contact with a stranger, wewould be forced to rethink our diagnosis.





    Justas observations must be madeobjectively,scientific predictions must be wordedprecisely enough toenablethem to be tested andthen rejected if the evidence does not support them. Suppose,for example, a researcher predict that the presence of a strangerwill reliably cause human and monkey babies, beyonda certain age, to respond with signs of anxiety. Wemight want to bring more precision to this prediction byexamining the dimension of “stranger”. Would fewersigns of anxiety appear in a human or a monkey baby if the strangerwere also a baby rather than an adult, or if the stranger were thesame species rather than of a different one? Toimprove future predictions,Bet9.com, a researcher would create systematicvariationsinenvironmental conditionsand observe their influences on the baby’s response.




      ControllingWhat Happens

      Formany psychologists, control is the central,most powerful goal. Control means make behavior happen or nothappen---starting it, maintaining it, stopping it, andinfluencing its form, strength, or rate of occurrence. Acausal explanation ofbehavior is convincing if it can create conditions under which thebehavior can be controlled.





        Theability to control behavior is important because it givespsychologists ways of helping people improve the quality of theirlives. Throughout Psychologyand Life, you willsee examplesof types of interventionspsychologists have devisedto help people gaincontrol over problematicaspectsof their lives.Chapter 15, for example, discusses treatments for mental illness. Wealso describe how people can harnesspsychological forces to eliminate unhealthy behaviors likesmoking and initiate healthybehaviors like regular exercise (see chapter 12). You willlearn what types of parenting practices can help parentsmaintain solid bonds with their children(chapter 10); you will learnwhat forces make strangers reluctant to offer assistance in emergencysituations and how those forces can be overcome (chapter 17).These are just a few examples ofthe broad range ofcircumstances in whichpsychologists use their knowledge to control and improve people’slives. In this respect, psychologists are a rather optimisticgroup; many believe that virtually anyundesired behavior pattern can be modified by the properintervention. Psychology and Life shares that optimism.




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