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Chapter1 (Psychology and Life) Part 3
点击: ,时间:2017-05-23 18:27

Chapter1 (Psychology and Life) Part 3,Bet9.com

第一章(心理学与生活)第三节

PredictingWhat Will Happen

Predictionsin psychology are statementsabout the likelihoodthat acertain behavior willoccur or that a given relationship will be found. Often anaccurate explanation of causes underlying some form of behavior willallow a researcher to make accurate predictions about futurebehavior. Thus, if we believe your roommate to be shy, wecould confidently predictthat he would be unconformable when asked to have a conversation witha stranger. When differentexplanations are putforward toaccountfor some behavior orrelationship, they are usually judged byhow well they can make accurate and comprehensive predictions.If your roommate was to blossom in contact with a stranger, wewould be forced to rethink our diagnosis.

    段落结构:

    主题(预测行为)->展开(解释与预测)->承接(承接上文例子)->展开(多种解释时)

    预测将要发生的行为

    心理学中的预测是对某个既定行为将要出现或者某种特定联系会被发现的可能性的陈述。通常,对某种行为的潜在缘由的确切解释,有助于研究人员对其未来的行为做出准确的预测。由此,如果我们认定你的室友是(出于)害羞,我们可以信心十足的预测,当他被要求与一个陌生人对话的时候,他会变得不知所措。倘若促成某些行为或者联系的多种解释被提出来,(我们)通常根据它们做出了何种程度的准确而全面的预测,做出判断。如果你的室友与陌生人接触时变得异常活跃,我们将被迫重新考虑我们的诊断。

    Justas observations must be madeobjectively,scientific predictions must be wordedprecisely enough toenablethem to be tested andthen rejected if the evidence does not support them. Suppose,for example, a researcher predict that the presence of a strangerwill reliably cause human and monkey babies, beyonda certain age, to respond with signs of anxiety. Wemight want to bring more precision to this prediction byexamining the dimension of “stranger”. Would fewersigns of anxiety appear in a human or a monkey baby if the strangerwere also a baby rather than an adult, or if the stranger were thesame species rather than of a different one? Toimprove future predictions,Bet9.com, a researcher would create systematicvariationsinenvironmental conditionsand observe their influences on the baby’s response.

      段落结构:

      主题(预测方式)->承接(上文例子)->概括收尾(提高准确度)

      正如观测必须保证客观性,科学的预测必须用足够精确的词语来描述,以便于接受检验;倘若证据不支持,预测便会被放弃。设想,Bet9.com,假如有一位研究者预测,陌生人的出现必然会引发达到了一定年龄的人类和猴子的幼儿做出表情焦虑的反应。经过审视“陌生人”的范围,我们可能需要对此预测加以明确的说明。如果陌生人也是一个婴儿而非成人,或者陌生人是同类而不是其他物种,人类或者猴子的幼儿会不会只是略微的焦虑?为了提高未来预测的准确程度,研究者将会在实验场景下,创建一套系统的差异化实验,并观察其对幼儿反应的影响。

      ControllingWhat Happens

      Formany psychologists, control is the central,most powerful goal. Control means make behavior happen or nothappen---starting it, maintaining it, stopping it, andinfluencing its form, strength, or rate of occurrence. Acausal explanation ofbehavior is convincing if it can create conditions under which thebehavior can be controlled.

        段落结构:

        主题(支配的方式)->展开(方式)->概括收尾(解释与支配的关系)

        支配行为的发生

        对于许多心理学家来说,支配是核心的,最为雄心勃勃的目标。支配意味着让某个行为发生或者不发生---触发它,维持它,打断它,(甚至)影响它的形式,强度或出现频率。如果根据某种因果关系的解释,能够构造出支配某项行为的环境条件,该解释就是具有说服力的。

        Theability to control behavior is important because it givespsychologists ways of helping people improve the quality of theirlives. Throughout Psychologyand Life, you willsee examplesof types of interventionspsychologists have devisedto help people gaincontrol over problematicaspectsof their lives.Chapter 15, for example, discusses treatments for mental illness. Wealso describe how people can harnesspsychological forces to eliminate unhealthy behaviors likesmoking and initiate healthybehaviors like regular exercise (see chapter 12). You willlearn what types of parenting practices can help parentsmaintain solid bonds with their children(chapter 10); you will learnwhat forces make strangers reluctant to offer assistance in emergencysituations and how those forces can be overcome (chapter 17).These are just a few examples ofthe broad range ofcircumstances in whichpsychologists use their knowledge to control and improve people’slives. In this respect, psychologists are a rather optimisticgroup; many believe that virtually anyundesired behavior pattern can be modified by the properintervention. Psychology and Life shares that optimism.

          段落结构:

          主题(支配的意义)->承接(客观举例)->概括收尾(意义的影响)

          支配行为的能力是重要的,因为它赋予了心理学家们多种帮助他人改善生活的方式。纵览《心理学与生活》,你将会看到各种各样的心理学家们设计出的用来帮助他人驾驭生活中不如意的那些方面的介入治疗实例。比如:在第十五章,讨论了精神疾病的治疗手段。我们还将叙述人们如何驾驭心理学的力量,消除像吸烟那样的不利于健康的行为,并且开始像定期锻炼身体那样的有利于健康的行为(见第十二章)。在第十章,你将了解到什么类型的养育技巧有助于父母保持与子女的紧密联系。在第十七章,你将了解到什么样的阻力促使陌生人在紧急状况下不情愿提供帮助,以及如何克服这些阻力。这些,对于众多的,心理学家们运用他们的学识来支配和改善人们生活的场景来说,只是一小部分例子。出于这种情形,心理学家们是一个相当乐观的群体;大多认为实际上任何不适宜的行为模式,都可以通过适当的介入治疗来改善。《心理学与生活》也抱有同样的乐观态度。

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